Najnovejši recepti

Cronut Inventor uvaja še eno čudežno pecivo

Cronut Inventor uvaja še eno čudežno pecivo



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Tokrat je to "Magic Soufflé", čokoladni soufflé v briošu

Seveda bi Dominique Ansel prav zdaj predstavil še en nori izum: Crumbs je množično izdeloval Cronut v "Crumbnutu", linija Cronut je krajša kot kdaj koli prej, zamrznjeni s'mores pa na vas ni imel tako velikega vpliva. bi si mislil, da se bo kaj takega zbralo.

Tako je tokrat Ansel izdal "Čarobni soufflé,"o katerem Grub Street poroča, je mini čokoladni soufflé, spečen v briošu, odišavljenem po pomarančnih cvetovih. Nekako ostaja soufflé vzhajano, s staljenim središčem, vse skupaj pa v notranjosti maslanega brioša. Ta človek je genij."

Po navedbah ulice Grub Ansel uporablja iste sestavine običajnega sufleja (čokolada, sladkor, beljaki, moka), vendar v različnih razmerjih (kar je očitno naredilo razliko). Kupci naj bi pecivo še vedno jedli kar iz pečice; trije sufleji stanejo 7 USD.

Kuhar danes predstavlja prve zgodbe; sufle uradno v prodajo v soboto. Pričakujte več linij pri Dominique Ansel (prekleto).


Osem več kopij Cronut iz celega sveta

To je bil še en naporen teden Cronut Manije: lastnik pekarne SoHo in izumitelj Cronuta Dominique Ansel je spremenil pravila v svoji trgovini: epska vrstica se bo zdaj zavila za drug vogal, snemalne ekipe pa se ne smejo prikazati nenapovedano. Internetno podjetje Digg si (verjetno se šali) prizadeva izumiti storitev, ki uporabnikom omogoča, da s pritiskom na gumb dostavijo Cronut na svojo mizo. Premium Cronut Delivery omogoča, da je nakup Cronuts od skalperjev nekoliko manj načrtno kot doslej (vendar pri 100 USD/cronut). Zgodil se je Tumblr "Deez Cronuts".

V novem delu Pekarna Dominique Ansel na spletnem mestu "Cronut 101" Ansel razkrije, da dejansko dela na povečanju svoje proizvodnje Cronut: "Upamo, da jih bomo kmalu predstavili po vsej državi!"Bolje, da se tega lotijo. Ta teden v seriji kopij Cronut prinašajo Zonut (Sydney, Avstralija), Frissant (Vancouver, BC), Cro-Nots (Boston, MA), kmalu pa bo prišlo do udarca, ki se bo primerno imenoval Cronie ( Durham, NC). Spodaj se je številnim drugim pekarjem, ki brez sramu kopirajo Anselin bes, ki povzroča norost, pridružil še osem prevarantov. Imena, ki jih ljudje uporabljajo, so Zonuts, Frissants, Dossants, Cro-Nots, Tough'Ssants, in brez šale: Eden od teh.


[Fotografija: Švicarska pekarna / Facebook]

Švicarska pekarna, Vancouver, Kanada

Švicarska pekarna v Vancouvru, BC je služil Frizanci strankam od 29. maja. Njihov prvi okus je bil vanilijev fižol, očitno pa obstajajo tudi različice s čokoladno kremo.


[Fotografija: Chicago Pastry / Facebook]

Chicago Pastry, Bloomingdale, IL

Bloomingdale, IL pekarna Čikaška slaščica je začel prodajati Dossants. Trdijo, da so "prva pekarna v Chicagu", ki je služila Cronuts, saj služijo od 3. junija.


[Fotografija: Adriano Zumbo Patissier / Facebook]

Adriano Zumbo Patissier, Sydney, Avstralija

Sydney, Avstralija Adriano Zumbo Patissier strežejo dve različici svojih Zonutov: slano karamelo in jabolčni streudel. Glede odtrganja Ansela, peka Adriano Zumbo povedal Sydney Morning Herald: "Nekako sem vesel na način, da nisem pregnal cronut -a. To naredi moje, kar pa naredi malo razlike. Kdo je ustvaril macaron? Kdo je ustvaril jabolčno pito? Vse se nekje začne." Kul.


[Fotografija: @PenaDonutHeaven]

Pena's Donut Heaven & amp Grill, Pearland, TX

Ob Pena's Donut Heaven & amp Grill v Pearlandu v Teksasu kokosove lupine, imenovane Dossants, zdaj postrežejo z nadevom iz jagodnega kremnega sira. Lastnik Raymond Pena je za Eater Houston povedal: "Pena vedno poskuša narediti nove stvari. Slišal sem za kronut. Slišal sem za norost." Tako kot Ansel tudi Pena "začenja zelo počasi".


[Fotografija: Craigslist]

Naključni Craigslister, okrožje Miami-Dade, FL

Podjetni slaščičar na območju Miami-Dade je svoje veščine izdelovanja kronatov ponudil vsem, ki so pripravljeni plačati za takšno žalostno videz. Anonimni kuhar Craiglist ponuja štiri za 16 USD, pa tudi dostavo. Za razliko od nekaterih drugih podobov, ta Craigslister pripisuje Anselu neposredno: "Od priljubljenega trendovskega" Cronuta ", ki ga je Dominque Ansel prvič predstavil v Sohoju v New Yorku.


[Fotografija: The Gallows / Facebook]

The Gallows, Boston, MA

V Bostonu, Viseči so skočili na vlak krof-rogljiček s kronoti. The Gallows je v nedeljo objavil sliko peciva, Eater Boston pa poroča, da je "omejena zaloga".


[Fotografija: Dessert Club, ChikaLicious / Facebook]

Dessert Club, ChikaLicious, New York, NY

Nedaleč od budnega pogleda Dominique Ansel, kuharjev na Dessert Club, ChikaLicious v vzhodni vasi v New Yorku zdaj izdelujejo testo. To ni njihov prvi izlet v svet mešanja peciva, prejšnji mesec so ustvarili tudi Yum Bun, ki je bil hibrid z rogljičevim cimetom.


[Fotografija: Eater Vegas / Facebook]

Lulu's Bread & amp Breakfast, Las Vegas, NV

V Las Vegasu, Lulu's Bread & amp Zajtrk streže ocvrt rogljiček, ki mu pravi eden tistih. Videti je, da je knockoff eden redkih, ki v središču nima celote, kot jo imajo Ansel's Cronuts. Eater Vegas poroča, da Lulu's ustvarja le "Eden od Thoses"ob koncu tedna", ker so tako delovno intenzivni. "


"Zasvojenostni rezultati" izumitelja Cronut

Na festivalu: Ansel gosti Death by Chocolate, od 22. do 1. ure zjutraj, v soboto, 21. februarja, v hotelu National, 1677 Collins Ave. Vstopnice, če so še na voljo, so 125 USD.

Zahtevaj slavo: Francoz, rojen Ansel, je sedem let preživel kot glavni slaščičar v vodilni francoski restavraciji Daniela Bouluda v New Yorku. Toda šele, ko je izumil cronut - hibrid rogljičkov/krofov - potem, ko je sam udaril, se je povzpel na zvezdniški status. Revija Time ga je označila za enega najboljših izumov leta 2013 in rodila je več drugih hibridnih peciv, vključno z bruffinom (brioš/kolač), duffinom (krof/kolač) in scuffinom (kolač/muffin). Lani je Ansel prejel prestižno nagrado James Beard za izjemnega kuharja. Odkar je izumil čokoladni piškotek z mlečnim piškotom, kjer kozarec mleka postrežejo v "kozarcu", ki je narejen iz piškotka.

Želijo več?: Anselova prva kuharska knjiga "Dominique Ansel: The Secret Recipes" je izšla oktobra lani in vsebuje recept za pecivo iz domačega konoplje, pa tudi čokoladni kolač s kaviarjem, pečeno Aljasko in Mini Madeleines.


POVEZANI ČLANKI

„Preverite, ali je olje na pravi temperaturi. V nasprotnem primeru pustite, da se ponovno segreje, preden ocvrtite naslednjo serijo, «je zapisano v navodilih.

Glede na to, da je različica, izdelana v pekarni Dominique Ansel v newyorškem SoHo, še bolj zapletena pri pripravi, razumemo, zakaj se dnevno proizvede le 200 koruz.

Mojster slaščičarne: Gospod Ansel, ki prihaja iz Beauvaisa v Franciji, je delal v Fauchonu in Danielu Bouludu, preden je leta 2011 odprl istoimensko pekarno.

Odkar je izumil Cronut, je g. Ansel prišel na naslovnice z drugimi genialnimi dobrotami, vključno z zamrznjenim S'morejem, čokoladnim piškotom in čokoladnim suflejem v briošu.

Prejšnji mesec je bilo objavljeno, da bo kuhar poleti 2015 odprl svojo drugo pekarno v Tokiu na Japonskem.

Gospod Ansel, ki prihaja iz francoskega Beauvaisa in je pred odprtjem svoje istoimenske pekarne leta 2011 delal v Fauchonu in Danielu, je v objavi dejal: 'Nekaj ​​bo ustvarjeno samo za Tokio in osebno bom videl vse vidike razvoja. Komaj čakam, da osebno pozdravim vse na otvoritvenem dnevu. '

RECEPT: DOMINIQUE ANSEL'S AT-HOME CRONUT

Sestavine (naredi 8 orehov)

  • 3 3/4 skodelice moke in po potrebi še več za posip
  • 1 žlica + 2 žlički košer soli
  • 1/4 skodelice + 1 žlica granuliranega sladkorja
  • 1 žlica + 1 1/2 čajne žličke instant kvasa (po možnosti SAF Gold Label)
  • 1 skodelica + 2 žlici hladne vode
  • 1 velik beljak
  • 8 žlic nesoljenega masla (84% masla), zmehčanega
  • 1 žlica težke smetane
  • Neprimeren sprej za kuhanje po potrebi
  • 18 žlic nesoljenega masla (84% masla), zmehčanega
  • Grozdno olje po potrebi
  • Glazura po vaši izbiri
  • Po potrebi okrasite sladkor po vaši izbiri
  • Stoječi mešalnik s kavljem za testo in metlico
  • Vladar
  • Velika offset lopatica
  • 3 9-palčni rezalnik za obroče
  • 1 -palčni (2,5 cm) rezalni obroč
  • Termometer za cvrtje
  • 2 nerazrezani vrečki za cevi
  • Wilton #230 Bismarckova kovinska konica ali druga Bismarckova cev
  • Navadna konica Ateco #803 (premer 5/16-palčni/0,8 cm)

Naredite ganache: Pripravite enega od spodnjih receptov za ganache in ga po potrebi postavite v hladilnik.

Naredite testo za pecivo: Zmešajte krušno moko, sol, sladkor, kvas, vodo, beljake, maslo in smetano v mešalniku, ki je opremljen s kavljem za testo. Mešajte, dokler se ne združijo, približno 3 minute. Ko bo testo končano, bo grobo in se bo zelo malo razvilo glutena.

Srednjo posodo rahlo namastite z razpršilcem za kuhanje, ki se ne prijema. Testo prenesite v skledo. Pokrijte s plastično folijo, pritisnjeno neposredno na površino testa, da preprečite nastanek kože. Testo vztrajajte na toplem mestu, dokler se ne podvoji, 2 do 3 ure.

Odstranite plastično folijo in prebodite testo, tako da robove prepognete na sredino in sprostite čim več plina. Na kos pergamentnega papirja oblikujte kvadrat 10 cm (25 cm). Prenesite v pekač, še vedno na pergamentnem papirju, in pokrijte s plastično folijo. Pustite čez noč v hladilniku.

Naredite blok iz masla: Na kos pergamentnega papirja s svinčnikom narišite kvadrat 7 cm (18 cm). Obrnite pergament, da maslo ne pride v stik z oznakami svinčnika. Maslo postavite na sredino kvadrata in ga enakomerno razporedite z lopatico, da zapolnite kvadrat. Pustite čez noč v hladilniku.

Laminat: Maslo odstranite iz hladilnika. Še vedno mora biti dovolj mehak, da se rahlo upogne brez razpok. Če je še vedno preveč čvrst, ga z valjarjem rahlo udarjajte po rahlo pomokani delovni površini, dokler ne postane upogljiv. Po obdelavi maslo potisnite nazaj na prvotni kvadrat velikosti 7 cm (18 cm).

Testo vzamemo iz hladilnika, pri tem pazimo, da je ves čas zelo hladno. Testo položite na pomokano delovno površino. Z valjarjem testo razvaljajte na kvadrat 10,5 palca (25,5 cm) debeline približno 2,5 cm. Na sredino testa razporedite masleni blok, tako da je na sredini kvadrata videti kot diamant (zavrtljen za 45 stopinj, z vogali maslenega bloka proti sredini stranic testa). Kote testa povlecite navzgor in navzgor do središča maslene kocke. Tesne šive stisnite skupaj, da maslo zaprete v notranjosti. Imeti morate kvadrat, nekoliko večji od bloka masla.

Zelo rahlo potresemo delovno površino z moko, da se testo ne prime. Z valjarjem z enakomernim in enakomernim pritiskom razvaljajte testo iz sredine. Ko končate, morate imeti 20-palčni (50 cm) kvadrat debeline približno 1/4 palca (6 mm). (To ni tipična tehnika laminiranja in je edinstvena za ta recept. Ko razvaljate testo, želite uporabiti čim manj moke. Več moke, ki jo vnesete v testo, težje bo razvaljati in kdaj če ocvrete pecivo Cronut At-Home, se bo razkosalo.)

Testo prepognite na polovico vodoravno, pri tem pa pazite, da poravnate robove, tako da ostane pravokotnik. Nato testo zložite navpično. Imeti morate 10-palčni (25,5 cm) kvadrat testa s 4 plastmi. Tesno zavijte v plastično folijo in pustite v hladilniku 1 uro.

Ponovite koraka 3 in 4. Tesno pokrijte s plastično folijo in pustite čez noč v hladilniku.

Rezano testo: Na rahlo pomokani delovni površini testo razvaljajte na kvadrat 15 cm (40 cm) debeline približno 1/2-palca (1,3 cm). Testo prestavimo v pekač na pol lista, pokrijemo s plastično folijo in za 1 uro postavimo v hladilnik, da se sprosti.

Z rezalnikom obroča 3 9 cm izrežite 12 krogov. Izrežite sredino vsakega kroga z 1-palčnim (2,5 cm) rezalnikom obroča, da ustvarite obliko krofa.

Pekač obložite s pergamentnim papirjem in rahlo potresite pergament z moko. Pecivo At-Home Cronut položite na ponev in ga razmaknite približno 3 cm (8 cm) narazen. Košček plastične folije rahlo poškropite z razpršilcem, ki se ne prijema, in ga položite na pecivo. Preverite na toplem mestu, dokler se njihova velikost ne potroji, približno 2 uri. (Najbolje je, da pecivo At-Home Cronut prepražite na toplem in vlažnem mestu. Če pa je območje za kuhanje pretoplo, se bo maslo stopilo, zato peciva ne postavljajte na pečico ali v bližino drugega neposrednega vira toplote.

Ocvrto testo: Segrejte olje grozdnih semen v velikem loncu, dokler ne doseže 175 stopinj C (350 stopinj F). S termometrom za cvrtje preverite, ali je olje na pravi temperaturi. (Temperatura olja je zelo pomembna za postopek cvrtja. Če je prenizka, bo pecivo mastno previsoko, notranjost se bo premalo pekla, medtem ko bo zunanjost zažgana.) Na krožnik položite več plasti papirnatih brisač za odcejanje peciva.

V vroče olje nežno položite 3 ali 4 naenkrat. Pražite približno 90 sekund na vsaki strani, enkrat obrnite do zlato rjave barve. Z orehovo žlico odstranite iz olja in odcedite na papirnatih brisačah.

Preverite, ali je olje na pravi temperaturi. V nasprotnem primeru pustite, da se ponovno segreje, preden pečete naslednjo serijo. Nadaljujte, dokler niso vsi ocvrti.

Pred polnjenjem pustite, da se popolnoma ohladi.

Naredite glazuro: Spodaj pripravite glazuro, ki ustreza vaši izbiri ganacheja.

Naredite sladkor z okusom: Pripravite okrasni sladkor, ki ustreza vaši izbiri ganacheja.

Sestavite: Ganache prenesite v stojni mešalnik, opremljen z metlico. Stepajte pri visoki hitrosti, dokler ganaš ne drži trdega vrha. (Če uporabljate ganache iz šampanjca in čokolade, ga preprosto stepejte do gladkega. Že bo precej gost.)

Odrežite vrh vrečke za cev, da se tesno prilega konici Bismarck. Z gumijasto lopatico položite 2 veliki merici ganacheja v vrečko za cevi, tako da je ena tretjina polna. Ganache potisnite navzdol proti vrhu vrečke.

V skledo položite okrasni sladkor, ki ustreza vaši izbiri ganacheja in glazure.

Vsako pecivo At-Home Cronut razporedite tako, da bo ravna stran obrnjena navzgor. Ganache vbrizgajte skozi vrh peciva na štiri različne točke, enakomerno razporejene. Ko pipate ganache, bi morali čutiti, da se pecivo v roki otežuje.

Pecivo položite na stran. Zvaljajte ustrezen sladkor in obložite zunanje robove.

Če se je glazura ohladila, jo za nekaj sekund segrejte v mikrovalovni pečici, da se segreje do mehkega. Odrežite vrh vrečke za cev, da se tesno prilega navadni konici #803. Z gumijasto lopatico prenesite glazuro v vrečko. Potisnite glazuro navzdol proti vrhu vrečke.

Po vrhu vsakega peciva At-Home Cronut položite obroč glazure, tako da pokrijete vse luknje, ki so nastale iz nadeva. Upoštevajte, da se bo glazura med ohlajanjem še naprej rahlo širila. Preden postrežete, pustite, da se glazura strdi približno 15 minut.

Navodila za serviranje: Ker je pecivo At-Home Cronut polnjeno s smetano, ga morate postreči pri sobni temperaturi.

Navodila za shranjevanje: Porabite v 8 urah po cvrtju. Ostanke ganache lahko shranite v zaprti nepredušni posodi v hladilniku 2 dni. Ostanki sladkorja z okusom se lahko tedne hranijo v zaprti nepredušni posodi in se lahko uporabijo za maceriranje sadja ali sladkanje pijač.

  • 1 list želatine, 160 cvetov (če ne najdete listov želatine, uporabite želatino v prahu. En list želatine = 1 majhna čajna žlička [2,3 grama] želatine v prahu. Za vsako čajno žličko želatine razcvetite v 1 žlici [15 gramov] vode. )
  • 1 3/4 skodelice težke smetane
  • 1 vanilijev fižol (po možnosti tahitski), po dolžini razcepljen, semena postrgana
  • 1/2 skodelice bele čokolade, drobno sesekljane
  • 4 žlice rožne vode

List želatine namočite v skledo z ledeno vodo do mehkega, približno 20 minut. Če uporabljate želatino v prahu, poškropite 1 čajno žličko (2,3 grama) želatine z 1 žlico (15 gramov) vode v majhni skledi, premešajte in pustite stati 20 minut, da zacveti.

V majhnem loncu združite težko smetano in semena vanilije ter na zmernem ognju zavrite. Odstranite z ognja.

Če uporabljate list želatine, iztisnite odvečno vodo. Odcejeno želatino stepemo v kremo, dokler se želatina ne raztopi.

Belo čokolado dajte v majhno toplotno odporno posodo. Vročo smetano prelijemo po čokoladi in pustimo stati 30 sekund.

Belo čokolado in vročo smetano penasto stepemo. Dodajte rožno vodo in mešajte, dokler se popolnoma ne zmeša. Pokrijte s plastično folijo, pritisnjeno neposredno na površino ganacheja, da preprečite nastanek kože. Pustite čez noč v hladilniku, da se strdi.

  • 2 lista želatine, 160 cvetov (če ne najdete listov želatine, uporabite želatino v prahu. En list želatine = 1 majhna čajna žlička [2,3 grama] želatine v prahu. Za vsako čajno žličko želatine razcvetite v 1 žlici [15 gramov] vode. )
  • 3/4 skodelice + 2 žlici težke smetane
  • Naribana lupina ene limone
  • 1/4 skodelice granuliranega sladkorja
  • 3/4 skodelice bele čokolade, drobno sesekljane
  • 1/2 skodelice + 1 žlica limoninega soka

Lističe želatine namočite v skledo z ledeno vodo do mehkega, približno 20 minut. Če uporabljate želatino v prahu, v majhni skledi poškropite 2 čajni žlički (5 gramov) želatine z 2 žlicama (30 gramov) vode, premešajte in pustite stati 20 minut, da zacveti.

V majhnem loncu združite smetano, limonino lupinico in sladkor ter na zmernem ognju zavrite. Odstranite z ognja.

Če uporabljate liste želatine, iztisnite odvečno vodo. Odcejeno želatino stepemo v kremo, dokler se želatina ne raztopi.

Belo čokolado dajte v majhno toplotno odporno posodo. Vročo smetano prelijemo po čokoladi in pustimo stati 30 sekund.

Belo čokolado in vročo smetano penasto stepemo. Pustite, da se ganache ohladi na sobno temperaturo.

Vmešajte limonin sok. Pokrijte s plastično folijo, pritisnjeno neposredno na površino ganacheja, da preprečite nastanek kože. Pustite čez noč v hladilniku, da se strdi.

  • 2 žlici vode
  • 1/4 skodelice + 2 žlici šampanjca
  • 1 1/2 žlice nesladkanega kakava v prahu
  • 1/2 skodelice težke smetane
  • 3 veliki rumenjaki
  • 3 žlice granuliranega sladkorja
  • 1 skodelica + 1 žlica temne čokolade (66% vsebnosti kakava), drobno sesekljana

V majhni skledi zmešajte vodo, 2 žlici (26 gramov) šampanjca in kakav v prahu. Zmiksajte v gladko pasto.

Smetano in preostalo 1/4 skodelice (76 gramov) šampanjca združite v majhnem loncu in na srednjem ognju zavrite. Odstranite z ognja.

Rumenjake in sladkor v prahu stepemo skupaj v majhni skledi. Tretjino mešanice vroče smetane vlijte v rumenjake, nenehno mešajte, dokler se popolnoma ne zmešajo, da se zmehčajo. Stepene rumenjake stepemo v preostalo vročo smetano. Lonec vrnite na srednji ogenj.

Še naprej mešajte! Kuhajte kremo še naprej na zmernem ognju, dokler ne doseže 185 stopinj F (85 stopinj C). Krema se obarva bledo rumeno in se zgosti, tako da prekrije zadnji del žlice. Odstranite z ognja in vmešajte pasto iz kakavovega prahu, dokler ni popolnoma vključena.

Čokolado dajte v srednje toplotno odporno posodo. Kremo precedimo skozi majhno sito nad čokolado. Pustite stati 30 sekund.

Čokolado in kremo stepemo do gladkega. Ko bo končan, bo ganache imel konsistenco jogurta. Za glazuro rezervirajte 1/4 skodelice (50 gramov). Pokrijte s plastično folijo, pritisnjeno neposredno na površino ganacheja, da preprečite nastanek kože. Pustite čez noč v hladilniku, da se strdi.

  • 1 skodelica granuliranega sladkorja
  • 1 vanilijev fižol (po možnosti tahitski), po dolžini razcepljen, semena postrgana

V majhni skledi združite sladkor in aromo. Rezervirajte, dokler ni potrebno.

  • 1/2 skodelice folije za zasteklitev (fondacija za zasteklitev je znana tudi kot "fondant glazura" ali "pecivo." Je podobna kraljevski glazuri, vendar ostane sijoča, ko se strdi.)
  • 2 žlici rožne vode
  • 1/2 skodelice folije za zasteklitev (fondacija za zasteklitev je znana tudi kot "fondant glazura" ali "pecivo." Je podobna kraljevski glazuri, vendar ostane sijoča, ko se strdi.)
  • Naribana lupina ene limone
  • 1/2 skodelice folije za zasteklitev (fondacija za zasteklitev je znana tudi kot "fondant glazura" ali "pecivo." Je podobna kraljevski glazuri, vendar ostane sijoča, ko se strdi.)
  • 1/4 skodelice šampanjsko-čokoladnega ganacheja (glej zgoraj)

Fondant v majhni skledi v mikrovalovni pečici segrejte v 10-sekundnih intervalih, med mešanjem mešajte. Ko je fondat rahlo topel, približno 20 sekund, dodajte ustrezen okus in mešajte, dokler se popolnoma ne zmeša.


Cronut Inventor uvaja še en čudež iz slaščic - recepti

"Hej, imitacije, če bomo kdaj v sobi skupaj, vas bom lahko pogledal v oči. Boste lahko storili enako? "

To je bil tvit, ki ga je izumitelj Cronut Dominique Ansel poslal kot ostro opozorilo vsem posnemovalcem, ki so po vsem svetu kopirali njegovo ustvarjanje. Z izrazom "Cronut", ki ga je zaščitil Chef Ansel in ga je skrbno varoval, se je povsod pojavilo nešteto imitacij, od Zonutov, preko bronutov, koruznih orehov do Crodougha. Seznam je iz dneva v dan daljši, jasno je, da je svet ponorel nad orehi, in vidim, zakaj.

Čeprav me prve izkušnje s podobovnikom Cronut niso navdušile, lahko razumem njeno privlačnost. Ko mi je Ren prvič povedal o tem, je samo misel, da bi nekdo združil rogljiček s krofom, spodbudila mojo domišljijo. Pecivo z luskavostjo rogljička, a puhastostjo krofa? Čist prekleti genij. In ni škodilo, da je ime Chef Ansel tako prekleto privlačno. Cronut. Samo z jezika se ti skotali.

Na koncu si ljudje želijo to pecivo, vendar ne živijo vsi v New Yorku. Tudi če živite v mestu, so možnosti, da ga dobite, majhne, ​​pri čemer je naložena omejitev le dva oreha na osebo na dan, ki se razprodata v prvih tridesetih minutah po odprtju. Očitno ni dovolj.


Vsebina

Zdi se, da je listnato pecivo povezano z grškim fillom [1] in se na podoben način uporablja za ustvarjanje večplastnega peciva. Zdi se, da se je listnato testo razvilo iz tankih listov testa, namazanega z olivnim oljem, v laminirano testo s plastmi masla.

Medtem ko se tradicionalno pripisuje francoskemu slikarju in kuharju Claudu Lorrainu [2], ki je živel v 17. stoletju (zgodba pravi, da je Lorrain za svojega bolnega očeta pripravljal vrsto zelo maslenega kruha in postopek valjanja masla v testo za kruh ustvaril rogljičku podoben končni izdelek), zgodba je lažna. Pravzaprav se zdi, da je izvor sodobnega listnatega testa španski, morda zaradi arabskih ali mavrskih vplivov: prvi znani recept sodobnega listnatega testa (z uporabo masla ali masti) se pojavi v španski knjigi receptov Libro del arte de cozina (Knjiga o umetnosti kuhanja), ki ga je napisal Domingo Hernández de Maceras in je bil objavljen leta 1607. [3] Maceras, glavni kuhar na eni izmed fakultet univerze v Salamanci, je že razlikoval med napolnjenimi recepti iz listnatega testa in torticami iz listnatega testa in omenja celo kvašene pripravke. Tako se zdi, da je bilo listnato testo v Španiji široko uporabljeno v začetku 17. stoletja. Prvi francoski recept iz listnatega testa je bil objavljen v "Pastissier françois" Françoisa Pierra La Varennea leta 1653. [4]

Proizvodnja testa iz listnatega testa je lahko dolgotrajna, saj ga je treba hraniti pri temperaturi približno 16 ° C (60 ° F), da se ne skrajša, in počivati ​​med gubami, da se lahko prameni glutena povežejo navzgor in tako ohranijo plastenje.

Število plasti v listnatem pecivu se izračuna po formuli:

Komercialno izdelano listnato pecivo je na voljo v trgovinah z živili. Običajne vrste maščob, ki jih uporabljamo, vključujejo maslo, zelenjavne krače, mast in margarino. Najpogosteje se uporablja maslo, saj daje bogatejši okus in vrhunski občutek v ustih. Skrajšave in mast imajo višjo tališče, zato se bo listnato testo, narejeno z enim ali drugim, dvignilo bolj kot pecivo z maslom, če je pravilno narejeno. Tako narejeno listnato pecivo bo imelo pogosto voskast občutek v ustih in bolj blag okus. Za industrijsko proizvodnjo listnatega testa se uporablja specializirana margarina, oblikovana za visoko plastičnost (sposobnost zelo tankega razmaza brez razpada).

Ker je postopek priprave listnatega testa na splošno naporen in dolgotrajen, so dokaj pogosti hitrejši recepti: znani kot "blitz", "grobo listnato" ali "lisnato pecivo". [6] Mnogi od teh receptov združujejo maslo v détrempe namesto da bi ga dodajali v postopku zlaganja in so tako podobni zloženi kratki skorji.

Listnato testo lahko tudi vzhajamo s pekovskim kvasom, da nastanejo rogljički, dansko pecivo, špansko/portugalska milhoja ali empanadilla, čeprav takšni pripravki v splošnem ne veljajo za listnato pecivo.

Listnato testo se razlikuje od filo (filo), čeprav ga lahko v nekaterih aplikacijah nadomestimo s filom. Phyllo testo je narejeno iz moke, vode in maščobe in se raztegne na velikost in ne valja. Pri pripravi filo testa na eno plast testa nanesemo majhno količino olja ali stopljene maščobe (običajno masla), ki jo prelijemo z drugo plastjo, postopek se ponovi tako pogosto, kot je potrebno. Ko se filo zapeče, postane hrustljav, a ker vsebuje nekoliko manj vode, se ne razširi v enaki meri kot listnato testo. Listnato testo se razlikuje tudi od avstrijskega testa za štruklje ali Strudelteig, ki je bolj podoben phyllo.


Vsebina

Kipferl, izvor rogljička, sega v Avstrijo vsaj v 13. stoletje in je prišel v različnih oblikah. [7] Kipferl je lahko navaden ali z orehi ali drugimi nadevi (nekateri menijo, da je rugelach oblika kipferla). [1]

Rojstvo samega rogljička - to je njegova prilagoditev iz preprostejše oblike kipferla, pred izumom dunajskih serij - je mogoče datirati vsaj v leto 1839 (nekateri pravijo 1838), ko je avstrijski topniški častnik August Zang ustanovil dunajsko pekarno ("Boulangerie Viennoise") na 92, rue de Richelieu v Parizu. [8] Ta pekarna, ki je služila dunajske specialitete, vključno s kipferlom in dunajskim hlebcem, je hitro postala priljubljena in navdihnila francoske posnemovalce (in koncept, če ne izraz, viennoiserie, izraz iz 20. stoletja za domnevno pecivo po dunajsko). Francoska različica kipferla je dobila ime po polmesecu (rogljiček) in je postala univerzalno prepoznavna oblika po vsem svetu. [ potreben citat ]

Alan Davidson, urednik Oxfordski spremljevalec hrane, ni našel nobenega natisnjenega recepta za današnji rogljiček v nobeni francoski knjigi receptov pred začetkom 20. stoletja. Najstarejše francosko sklicevanje na rogljiček, ki ga je našel, je bilo med "fantazijskimi ali luksuznimi kruhi" v Payenovih Des вещества alimentaires, 1853. Vendar pa je v 19. stoletju mogoče najti zgodnje recepte za neplastirane rogljičke in vsaj eno sklicevanje na rogljičke kot uveljavljen francoski kruh se je pojavilo že leta 1850. [9]

Zang sam se je leta 1848 vrnil v Avstrijo, da bi postal tiskovni magnat, vendar je pekarna kasneje ostala priljubljena in je bila omenjena v več takratnih delih: "Ta isti M. Zank [sic]. ustanovljeno okoli leta 1830 [sic], v Parizu, znameniti Boulangerie viennoise ". [10] Več virov hvali izdelke te pekarne:" Pariz je izvrstne delikatese in zlasti sočni izdelki Boulangerie Viennoise "[11]", ki zdelo se nam je tako v redu, kot da bi prišlo iz dunajske pekarne na ulici de Richelieu ". [12]

Do leta 1869 je bil rogljiček dovolj dobro uveljavljen, da ga lahko omenjamo kot zajtrk [13], leta 1872 pa je Charles Dickens zapisal (v svojem časopisu Vse leto) od "delavca" menage pain in vojakov municija bolečina, do okusnega rogljička na mizi boudoir "[14]

Tehnika listnatega testa, ki je zdaj značilna za rogljiček, je bila omenjena že v poznem 17. stoletju, ko je La Varenne Le Cuisinier françois dal recept zanj v izdajah leta 1680 in morda prej. Običajno se ni uporabljal sam, ampak za lupine, ki vsebujejo druge sestavine (kot pri vol-au-vent). Zdi se, da se omenja v zvezi s rogljičkom šele v 20. stoletju.

Kulinarične legende Edit

Zgodbe o nastanku Kipferla - in na koncu rogljička - so razširjene in vztrajne kulinarične legende, ki segajo v 19. stoletje. [15] Vendar za nobeno od teh zgodb ni sodobnih virov in aristokratski pisatelj, ki je pisal leta 1799, ne omenja Kipferla na dolgem in obsežnem seznamu živil za zajtrk. [16]

Legende vključujejo zgodbe, ki so jih v Evropi izumili za praznovanje poraza omajadskih sil s strani Frankov v bitki pri Toursu leta 732, oblika pa predstavlja islamski polmesec, ki so ga izumili v Budimu ali po drugih virih leta Dunaj leta 1683 za praznovanje poraza Osmanov s krščanskimi silami v obleganju mesta, kot sklicevanje na polmesece na osmanskih zastavah, ko so peki, ki so ostali budni vso noč, slišali operacijo predora in sprožili alarm. [15]

Zgoraj omenjeni Alan Davidson je predlagal, da zgodba o islamskem izvoru izvira iz pisca 20. stoletja Alfreda Gottschalka, ki je dal dve različici, eno v Larousse Gastronomique drugi pa v njegovem Zgodovina hrane in gastronomije: [17]

Po eni od skupin podobnih legend, ki se razlikujejo le do podrobnosti, je bil pek iz 17. stoletja, ki je delal celo noč v času, ko so njegovo mesto (bodisi Dunaj leta 1683 bodisi Budimpešta leta 1686) oblegali Turki, slišal rahle podzemne ropotajoče zvoke, za katere se je po preiskavi izkazalo, da jih je turški poskus vdora v mesto s tuneliranjem pod obzidjem. Predor je bil razstreljen. Pek ni zahteval nobene nagrade, razen izključne pravice peči pecivo v obliki polmeseca v spomin na incident, polmesec je simbol islama. Na ta način je bil ustrezno nagrajen in rojen je bil rogljiček. Zdi se, da zgodba dolguje svoj izvor ali vsaj široko razširjenost Alfredu Gottschalku, ki je o rogljičku pisal za prvo izdajo [1938] Larousse Gastronomique in dal legendo o turškem napadu na Budimpešto v različici iz leta 1686, vendar o zgodovini hrane, se je odločil za različico "obleganje Dunaja leta 1683". [18]

Zaradi tega so nekateri islamski fundamentalisti prepovedali rogljičke. [19]

Nekuhano testo za rogljičke lahko pred peko zavijete tudi okoli praline, mandljeve paste ali čokolade (v zadnjem primeru postane tako bolečina v čokoladi, ki ima drugačno obliko, ki ni polmesec), ali narezano na sladke ali slane nadeve. Lahko je aromatiziran s suhim sadjem, kot so sultane ali rozine, ali drugim sadjem, kot so jabolka. V Franciji in Španiji se rogljički običajno prodajajo brez nadeva in jedo brez dodanega masla, včasih pa z mandljevim nadevom. V Združenih državah se včasih uporabljajo sladki nadevi ali prelivi, tople rogljičke pa lahko napolnijo s šunko in sirom ali feta sirom in špinačo. Na Levantu se rogljički prodajajo navadni ali napolnjeni s čokolado, sirom, mandlji ali zaatarjem. V Nemčiji so rogljički včasih napolnjeni z Nutello ali persipanom v južni Nemčiji, priljubljena je tudi sorta rogljička, zastekljenega z lugom (Laugencroissant). V nemško govorečem delu Švice se rogljiček običajno imenuje a Gipfeli ta ima ponavadi bolj hrustljavo skorjo in je manj maslen kot rogljiček v francoskem slogu.

Argentina in Urugvaj Edit

Rogljičke običajno postrežemo skupaj s kavo za zajtrk, aperitivo (lahek dopoldanski obrok), oz merienda (popoldanski obrok). Imenujejo se kot medialunas ("polmeseci") zaradi svoje oblike in so običajno prevlečeni s sladko glazuro (medialunas de manteca, "pol lunine masla"). Druga varianta je a medialuna de grasa ("polmesec masti"), ki ni vedno sladko.

Italija Edit

A cousin of the croissant is the Italian cornetto (in the Center and South) or brioche (in the North). These variants are often considered to be the same, but that is not completely true: the French version tends to be crispy and contains a lot of butter, whereas an Italian cornetto or brioche is usually softer. Poleg tega je cornetto vuoto (Italian: "empty cornetto") is commonly accompanied by variants with filling, which include crema pasticciera (custard), apricot jam or chocolate cream. They often come covered with powdered sugar or other toppings. Cornetto with cappuccino at the bar is considered [ kdo? ] to be the one of the most common breakfasts in Italy.

Poland Edit

On 11 November, St. Martin's Day is celebrated in the Polish region of Greater Poland, mainly in its capital city Poznań. On this day, the people of Poznań purchase and eat considerable amounts of sweet, crescent-shaped pastries called rogale świętomarcińskie ("St. Martin's croissants"). They are made specially for this occasion from puff pastry with a filling made of ground white poppy seeds, almonds, raisins, and nuts.

Portugal Edit

The first type of Portuguese croissant is similar to the French, and can be plain or filled with custard, chocolate, fruit jam, or a typical Portuguese cream made of egg yolk and sugar, "doce de ovo". It is customary for these to also have powdered sugar on top. The second version has a similar consistency to brioche and is commonly eaten with ham and cheese. Sometimes this type is also served like toast, with a spread of butter. While the first type of croissant is considered sweet and is eaten during breakfast or tea, the second type is a more filling meal and is usually considered a sandwich and often prepared for picnics or as travel food. Both types share the same name (French/Portuguese: "croissant") but are typically found in different bakeries: the sweet croissant is more commonly found in Portuguese pâtisseries and the brioche croissant is usually found in coffeehouses.

Spain Edit

Besides of the regular croissant, a variation called "cuerno" (meaning "horn") is sold. It is half of a croissant stuffed usually with cream.

Turkey Edit

A remote similarity of the croissant shape is the Turkish ay çöreği. It is filled with cinnamon, walnut, hazelnut, cacao and raisin. [20] Its rectangular shape variant is known as pastiç ali İzmir çöreği. [21] It is generally eaten during breakfast or with tea.

The first step of manufacturing croissants is the "predough" formation. To prepare predough, flour, water, in-dough fat, yeast, salt, and sugar are mixed together in a single step. [22] Typically, croissant predough is mixed in a relatively cool environment, for a longer time than other pastries. The ideal temperature of the dough should be around 19 °C, to best hydrate the ingredients. [23] In comparison to the mixing of bread dough ingredients, pastry predough is considered underdeveloped in that mixing is stopped as soon as the dough appears homogeneous, to allow for further dough development in the next step. [22]

The second step is the lamination process. Lamination is necessary to produce multilayered dough with alternating layers of predough and fat. Generally, there are two methods for folding fat into the dough: the English method and the French method. In the English method, one fold results in two fat layers and three dough layers. [24] After spreading out predough, roll-in fat is flattened to a similar thickness as the predough and spread over two-thirds of the surface of the laminated predough. The exposed third of predough is then folded over half of the roll-in fat, while the other end (one predough and one fat layer) is folded on top. In the French method, one fold results in one fat layer and two dough layers. After spreading out the predough and putting a layer of roll-in fat over the center surface of the dough, the corners of the predough are folded toward the middle of the fat. Croissant dough is typically laminated until 16–50 fat layers are obtained. [22] The optimal number of layers can be determined by balancing certain crumb properties with specific volume. On one hand, a low number of layers yields large specific heights as well as irregular crumb structure with large voids. On the other hand, a large number of relatively thin layers leads to interconnections between different dough layers as well as less dough lift.

After lamination, the dough is formed into its famous crescent shape. First, the laminated dough is cut into triangles of the desired size. The triangles are then rolled with three-and-a-half to four full turns, and finally, the ends of the roll are curved inwards to form a crescent. [23]

The third step is the fermentation process. Croissants are different from other puff pastries in that they include yeast which, during proofing, increase the dough volume. Ideally, the optimum croissant quality is achieved at a yeast level of 7.5%, with a proof time of 60 minutes at 31 °C. [24] The croissants are finished proofing when the dough has expanded two-and-a-half times its original volume. [23]

The fourth step is the baking process. Also known as "pastry lift" or "dough lift", the dough expands as water is converted to steam, thus increasing the pressure between each dough layer. As a result, the croissant dough rises up to yield its characteristic flaky texture. [22] Depending on the type of oven used and specific size of the croissant, the baking time can range from 10 to 20 minutes and the oven temperature can be set anywhere from 165 °C to 205 °C. [23]

The final steps are the cooling and storage of the croissant. Croissants are generally not stored for very long and are typically consumed soon after baking.

Predough Edit

Gluten proteins affect the water absorption and viscoelastic properties of the predough. [22] The role of proteins can be divided into two stages of dough formation: hydration and deformation. In the hydration stage, gluten proteins absorb water up to two times their own weight. In the deformation or kneading stage, the action of mixing causes the gluten to undergo a series of polymerization and depolymerization reactions, forming a viscoelastic network. Hydrated glutenin proteins in particular help form a polymeric protein network that makes the dough more cohesive. On the other hand, hydrated gliadin proteins do not directly form the network, but do act as plasticizers of the glutenin network, thus imparting fluidity to the dough’s viscosity. [25]

Starch also affects the viscosity of predough. At room temperature and in a sufficient amount of water, intact starch granules can absorb water up to 50% of their own dry weight, causing them to swell to a limited extent. [26] The slightly swollen granules are found in the spaces between the gluten network, thus contributing to the consistency of the dough. The granules may not be intact, as the process of milling wheat into flour damages some of the starch granules. Given that damaged starch granules have the capacity to absorb around three times as much water as undamaged starch, the use of flour with higher levels of damaged starch requires the addition of more water to achieve optimal dough development and consistency. [22]

Water content affects the mechanical behavior of predough. [22] As previously discussed, water is absorbed by gluten and starch granules to increase the viscosity of the dough. The temperature of the water is also important as it determines the temperature of the predough. In order to facilitate processing, cold water should be used for two main reasons. First, chilled water provides a desirable environment for gluten development, as the temperature at which mixing occurs impacts the dough’s hydration time, consistency, and required amount of mixing energy. [27] Secondly, cold water is comparable to the temperature of the roll-in fat to be added later, which better facilitates the latter’s incorporation. [22]

In-dough fat affects the texture and lift of predough. Although higher levels of dough fat may lower dough lift during baking, it also correlates with a softer end product. [22] As such, the main function of in-dough fat is to produce a desirable softness in the final croissant.

Lamination Edit

In laminated croissant dough, the gluten network is not continuous. Instead, the gluten proteins are separated as thin gluten films between dough layers. The formation of thin, well-defined layers affects the height of dough lift. Generally, laminated croissant dough contains fewer layers than other puff pastry doughs that do not contain yeast, due to the presence of small bubbles in the gluten sheets. Upon proofing, these bubbles expand and destroy the integrity of the dough layers. [24] The resulting interconnections between different dough layers would over-increase dough strength and allow water vapor to escape through micropores during baking, consequently decreasing dough lift. The role of fat also influences the separation of layers, as will be discussed next.

Roll-in fat affects the flakiness and flavor of the croissant. In laminated dough, fat layers alternate with dough layers. As such, the most important function of roll-in fat is to form and maintain a barrier between the different dough layers during sheeting and folding. [22] As previously stated, the ability for fat to maintain separation between folded dough layers ensures proper dough lift.

The type of roll-in fat used is typically butter or margarine. Butter and margarine are both water-in-oil emulsions, composed of stabilized water droplets dispersed in oil. [28] While butter is appealing due to its high consumer acceptance, its low melting point, 32 °C, actually makes it undesirable for production purposes. The use of butter as roll-in fat during the lamination step will cause problems of oiling out during sheeting and fermentation if the temperature is not tightly controlled, thus disrupting the integrity of the layers. [22] On the other hand, kinds of margarine are commonly used as roll-in fat because they facilitate dough handling. Generally, roll-in margarine should have a melting point between 40 °C and 44 °C, at least 3 °C higher than the fermentation temperature to prevent oiling out prior to baking. It is also important to consider the plasticity and firmness of the roll-in fat, which is largely determined by its solid fat content. Generally, a greater proportion of solid fat coincides with larger croissant lift. [29] At the same time, the roll-in fat should have plasticity comparable to that of the dough, such that the fat layers do not break during sheeting and folding. [22] If the fat is firmer than the dough, then the dough can rupture. If the fat is softer than the dough, then it will succumb to the mechanical stress of sheeting and potentially migrate into the dough.

Fermentation Edit

Croissants contain yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is incorporated during predough formation. When oxygen is abundant, the yeast breaks down sugar into carbon dioxide and water through the process of respiration. [30] This process releases energy that is used by the yeast for growth. After consuming all of the oxygen, the yeast switches to anaerobic fermentation. At this point, the yeast partially breaks down sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Once CO2 saturates the dough’s aqueous phase, the gas begins to leaven the dough by diffusing to preexisting gas cells that were incorporated into the predough during mixing. [22] Yeast action does not produce new gas cells, as the immense pressure required for a single CO2 molecule to create a new gas bubble is not physically attainable [31]

In order to ensure the flaky texture of the croissant, it is important to balance the yeast activity with steam production. If the yeast overproduces CO2, then the well-defined layers may collapse. [29] During the baking process, this would cause steam to escape too early from the bread, reducing dough lift and flakiness of the final product. Thus, to offset the negative effects of yeast on layer integrity and dough lift, croissants usually contain fewer layers than other puff pastries.

Baking Edit

During baking, the transient gluten network turns into a permanent network. [32] At higher temperatures, intermolecular disulfide bonds form between glutenin molecules, as well as between gliadin and glutenin. With more bonds being made, the gluten network becomes more rigid, strengthening the croissant’s crumb texture. Additionally, the baking process significantly stretches the dough layers due to the large macroscopic deformation that occurred during fermentation’s dough lift. [22]

Starch undergoes gelatinization as a result of baking. [26] Prior to baking, starch granules absorb a small amount of water at room temperature as it is mixed with water to form predough. As long as the dough’s temperature stays under the gelatinization temperature, this granule swelling is limited and reversible. However, once the baking process begins and the dough is exposed to temperatures above the gelatinization temperature, amylopectin crystallites become more disordered inside the starch granules and cause an irreversible destruction of molecular order. [22] At the same time, starch gelatinization actively draws water from the gluten network, further decreasing the flexibility of the gluten. Currently, the extent of amylose leaching and granular structure distortion during the baking of croissants is still unknown.

Roll-in fat gradually melts as the temperature in the oven increases. Some of the melting fat can migrate into the dough, which could then interfere with gluten protein crosslinking. [33] The fat phase also contributes to dough lift through gas inflation, which will be described next.

Water is converted to steam during the baking process, which is the main factor behind the leavening of the dough. The water for steam production comes from both the dough layers and the roll-in fat. As the fat melts, the continuous oil phase is no longer able to stabilize the water droplets, which are then released and converted to steam. [34] Although the exact mechanism of steam entrapment is still unclear, it is likely a result of both steam expanding inside each dough layer and steam migrating to oil layers, where it inflates gas bubbles. The steam migration to oil phase is likely due to the smaller pressure differential required to inflate a bubble of steam in liquid fat than in solid dough. [22] As the concentration of steam increases between dough layers, the increased pressure causes the dough to lift. It is important to note that during the entire baking process, only half of the water vapor contributes to dough lift, as the other half is lost through micropores and capillaries of interconnected dough layers.

Storage Edit

The effect of gluten proteins during cooling and storage is still unclear. It is possible that gluten proteins influence croissant firming through the loss of plasticizing water, which increases the stiffness of the gluten network. [35]

Starch plays a major role in the degradation of croissants during storage. Amylopectin retrogradation occurs over several days to weeks, as amorphous amylopectin chains are realigned into a more crystalline structure. [22] The transformation of the starch causes undesirable firmness in the croissant. Additionally, the formation of the crystal structure of amylopectin requires the incorporation of water. Starch retrogradation actively draws water from the amorphous gluten network and some of the amorphous starch fraction, which reduces the plasticity of both. [22]

Water migration influences the quality of stored croissants through two mechanisms. First, as previously stated, water redistributes from gluten to starch as a result of starch retrogradation. Secondly, during the baking process, a moisture gradient was introduced as a result of heat transfer from the oven to the croissant. [22] In fresh croissants, there is high moisture content on the inside and low moisture content on the outside. During storage, this moisture gradient induces water migration from the inside to the outer crust. On a molecular level, water is lost from the amorphous starch fraction and gluten network. At the same time, water diffuses from the outer crust to the environment, which has less moisture. [36] The result of this redistribution of water is a firming up of the croissant, caused by a decrease in starch plasticity and an increase in gluten network rigidity. Due to the presence of large pores in croissants, moisture is lost to the environment at a faster rate than bread products. [37] As such, croissants generally become harder in texture at a faster rate than breads.

Fat also affects the quality of croissants in storage. On one hand, an increased amount of in-dough fat has been found to correspond to a reduction in crumb hardness immediately after baking. [22] This is likely attributed to the high-fat content of croissants, as increased fat levels decrease moisture diffusion. [37] On the other hand, although roll-in fat softens the croissant’s initial crumb, its effect on croissant hardness during storage is still unclear.


NAVODILA

  1. Stir together milk and yeast in large bowl. Stir in eggs, sugar, and vanilla, then mix well. Add cup of flour and salt, then gradually add another 2 1/4 cups of flour. Stir and knead for several minutes until smooth and elastic, and still somewhat tacky.
  2. Transfer dough to baking sheet and cover with plastic wrap. Chill in refrigerator for 30 minutes.

And voila! Meet the cro-not, the Cronut without a hole.

After trying this recipe, Ren learned a few things: A) It&rsquos best to punch a hole to ensure even cooking, so don&rsquot do what we did. Use a donut cutter. B) If you live in a warm climate like we do, work as fast as you can so the butter doesn&rsquot melt. C) Let the dough chill in the refrigerator for 45 minutes between turns instead of 30. This will help firm up the butter a little more so it doesn&rsquot ooze out so easily.

Pick your poison. A selection of spreads to enjoy with the cro-nots.


London’s best bakeries

April 2019: London&rsquos bread makers and cake specialists are on a roll, and we&rsquove added (almost) a baker&rsquos dozen to our list of must-visit addresses, like the Dusty Knuckle (bread with a mission and a social conscience in Dalston) and Aux Pains du Papy near King&rsquos Cross (whose croissants are the best in town). Elsewhere, Jolene (from the folks behind Primeur and Westerns Laundry) is part brunch spot, part bakery, part small-plates eatery, while cult fave Ararat Bread deals in unbeatable Middle Eastern flatbreads (Baban&rsquos Naan does similar stuff from a hole-in-the wall spot in Highbury).

Whittling down the best dough in the city is no mean feat. From Asian patisseries to cronut auteurs and sourdough specialists &ndash when it comes to bakeries, London is a goldmine. We&rsquove risen to the challenge and eaten our way through the lot to round up yeasty royalty. Quite literally, actually &ndash because the boujie Hackney bakery that did Harry and Meghan&rsquos wedding cake has made the cut.

Anges de Sucre

If you want a showstopper for any special occasion (including weddings), the clear choice is arty patissier Anges de Sucre, who now have their own boutique in North Acton &ndash in addition to supplying Selfridges and other retail outlets. Their cakes are insanely detailed and decorated with everything from lacy Swiss meringue buttercream and white chocolate pearls to ombré-glazed buttermilk doughnuts. Bizarre creations such as the vegan &rsquopig in a unicorn wig&rsquo, the two-tiered &lsquomermaid skirt&rsquo or &lsquogaga rainbow&rsquo cake are guaranteed to bring the house down. Also come to Anges for their macarons and marshmallows in all colours, designs and flavours &ndash or drop by for a hot chocolate or a cup of coffee before you shop (the beans are specially roasted in Paris).

Specialities: Celebratory cakes for all occasions . and macarons

AOK Kitchen & Bakery

A venue of two halves, AOK is divided into a ground-floor Kitchen and a downstairs bakery. The former is a health-conscious Mediterranean-style restaurant serving an on-trend seasonal menu against a chic backdrop of marble floors and hand-painted silk wallpaper with a &lsquomagical tree&rsquo as the centrepiece. The latter is an artisan bakery (complete with tables for a sit-down) specialising in dairy- and gluten-free breads, baguettes, cakes, pastries and viennoiseries &ndash all overseen by Sebastien Chiono, the head baker at The Arts Club in Mayfair. The baking team will also produce bespoke cakes, savoury pizzette and desserts such as exotic fruit pavlova &ndash in addition to customised items for special occasions.

Specialities: Gluten-free breads and pastries

Ararat Bread

It may be little more than a hole-in-the-wall behind Ridley Road market in Dalston, but Ararat&rsquos Middle Eastern-style flatbreads (they call them &lsquonaans&rsquo) are the stuff of legend and find their way into countless restaurants and shops across town &ndash as well serving the needs of hungry local boozehounds. The action centres around a huge rotating oven and a trestle table where the naans are bagged up (hot ones are wrapped in paper, cold ones come in environmentally friendly plastic bags). You can buy them plain, although most people go for the versions topped with meat, cheese or egg either way, they&rsquore cheap as chips &ndash but more interesting.

Specialities: Middle Eastern flatbreads, aka &lsquonaans&rsquo

Aux Pains de Papy

A mere boule&rsquos throw from King&rsquos Cross, this London offshoot of a family-run bakery chain gives punters all the endearing charms of a properly authentic, rustic French boulangerie/patisserie without having to shell out for a trip on the Eurostar. Local workers come here for their daily bread and satisfying lunchtime sarnies, but it&rsquos worth plundering the display of classics &ndash crusty baguettes, rustic saucer-shaped pan bagnats, almond croissants fresh from the oven, pain au chocolat, eclairs and a tip-top version of Paris-Brest (crisp, golden-hued pastry rings filled with a ruff of nutty praline cream). Also look out for their light, sugary and sweetly perfumed bugnes &ndash mini-doughnuts flavoured with orange blossom water. More sites are in the pipeline.


Vsebina

There is some variation in whether the term macaron ali macaroon is used, and the related coconut macaroon is often confused with the macaron. In North America, most bakers have adopted the French spelling of macaron for the meringue-based item to distinguish the two. Stanford professor of linguistics Daniel Jurafsky describes how the two confections have a shared history with macaroni (Italian maccheroni, from Greek μακαρία). Jurafsky notes that French words ending with "-on" that were borrowed into English in the 16th and 17th centuries are usually spelled with "-oon" (for example: balon, risanka, platoon). [6] In the UK, many bakeries continue to use the term "macaroon". [7] [8]

Macarons have been produced in the Venetian monasteries since the 8th century A.D. During the Renaissance, French queen Catherine de' Medici's Italian pastry chefs made them when she brought them with her to France in 1533 upon marrying Henry II of France. [9] According to Larousse Gastronomique the macaron was created in 1791 in a convent near Cormery. In 1792, macarons began to gain fame when two Carmelite nuns, seeking asylum in Nancy during the French Revolution, baked and sold the macaron cookies in order to pay for their housing. These nuns became known as the "Macaron Sisters". In these early stages, macarons were served without special flavours or fillings. [10]

It was not until the 1930s that macarons began to be served two-by-two with the addition of jams, liqueurs, and spices. The macaron as it is known today, composed of two almond meringue discs filled with a layer of buttercream, jam, or ganache filling, was originally called the "Gerbet" or the "Paris macaron." Pierre Desfontaines, of the French pâtisserie Ladurée, has sometimes been credited with its creation in the early part of the 20th century, but another baker, Claude Gerbet, also claims to have invented it. [6] [11] French macaron bakeries became trendy in North America in the 2010s. [12]

Many Italian cookbooks of the 16th-century mention almond biscuits closely resembling macarons, albeit under different names. The earliest known recipe dates back to the early 17th century and appears to be inspired by a French version of the recipe.

To make French Macaroones
Wash a pound of the newest and the best Jordane Almonds in three or foure waters, to take away the rednesse from their out-side, lay them in a Bason of warme water all night, the next day blanch them, and dry them with a faire cloath, beat them in a stone morter, until they be reasonably fine, put to them halfe a pound of fine beaten Sugar, and so beat it to a perfect Paste, then put in halfe a dozen spoonefuls of good Damaske Rose-water, three graines of Ambergreece, when you have beaten all this together, dry it on a chafingdish of coales until it grow white and stiffe, then take it off the fire, and put the whites of two new laid Egs first beaten into froath, and so stirre it well together, then lay them on wafers in fashion of little long rowles, and so bake them in an Oven as hot as for Manchet, but you must first let the heat of the Oven passe over before you put them in, when they rise white and light, take them out of the Oven, and put them in a warm platter, and set them againe into the warme Oven & so let them remain foure or five houres, and then they wil be thoroughly dry, but if you like them better being moist, then dry them not after the first baking.

There are two main methods for making a macaron – the "French" method and the "Italian" method. The difference between the two is the way the meringue is made.

In the French method, egg whites are whisked until stiff-peaked meringue forms. From there, sifted, ground almonds and powdered sugar are folded in slowly until the desired consistency is reached. This process of knocking out air and folding is called macaronage. [14]

The Italian method involves whisking the egg whites with a hot sugar syrup to form a meringue. Sifted almonds and icing sugar are also mixed with raw egg whites to form a paste. The meringue and almond paste are mixed together to form the macaron mixture. This method is often deemed more structurally sound yet also sweeter and also requires a candy thermometer for the sugar syrup.

Either Italian or French meringue can be combined with ground almonds. [15]

A macaron is made by combining icing sugar and ground almonds into a fine mixture. [16] In a separate bowl, egg whites are beaten to a meringue-like consistency. [17] The two elements are then folded together until they are the consistency of "shaving foam", and then are piped, left to form a skin, and baked. [18] Sometimes, a filling is added.